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Alexandre Darracq (1855-1931) , a Frenchman , created Gladiator Cycle Company in 1891 and was very successful in the business. In 1896 , he sold the bicycle company and formed Automobiles Darracq et Cie. Initially Automobiles Darracq was involved in electric carriages, Millet motorcycles and Leon Bollee automobiles.  In 1900, Darracq built its first car and was the first to use pressed steel chasis and was one of the first cars to be manufactured using factory machine as compared to skilled labour.
A 1901 , 6.5 HP Darracq –
Alexandre Darracq expanded his geographical footprint by licensing his car designs.
In 1902, he licensed his design to Adam Opel of Germany who made cars branded as Opel-Darracq in Germany.
In 1905 , he formed A. Darracq and Company in Britain.
1906 , he licensed his design to a group of Italians and formed the company Societa Automobili Italiana Darracq (SAID) in Milan. This company did not do well and in 1909, a new company was formedAnonima Lombarda Fabbrica Autombili (A.L.F.A). This company flourished and was later taken over by Nicola Romeo which became Alfa Romeo.  A 1910, 24 HP A.L.F.A-
In 1907 , he licensed his design to Spain and formed Sociedad Anonima Espanola de Automiviles Darracq.
Darracq was heavily involved in racing and Darracq cars won many race events. Darracq was holding the land speed record in 1904 and 1905.Louis Chevrolet was one of the famous test drivers for Darracq. A Darracq racer –
Alexandre Darracq retired from business in 1913 and sold out his holdings to Britisher Owen Clegg who took charge of Automobiles Darracq. In 1919, Darracq acquired Talbot and in the next year Talbot-Darracq was merged with Sunbeam to form Sunbeam-Talbot- Darracq (STD)combine.
The STD combine collapsed in 1935 and was taken over by Rootes group. Rootes group went in to financial trouble in 1964 and was acquired by Chrysler Eurpoe. In 1978, Peugeot and Renault acquired the brands from Chrysler Europe.
The Darracq logo –

 

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Alldays and Onions Pneumatic Engineering Company was formed in 1889 by the merger of  John C Onions Ltd and William Allday and Sons. These companies were involved in Engineering and blacksmith operations and were founded by John C Onions in 1650 and William Allday in 1720, respectively.

Alldays and Onions expanded in to manufacture of bicyles. In 1898 , Alldays and Onions manufactured their first car called the Traveller, even though it was not sold before 1903. An original 1900 Traveller –

By 1903 , Alldays and Onions were selling cars and also expanded in to Motorcycles. Motorcycles were sold under the Allday-Matchless name and was later renamed as Allon , so as not to confuse with another company by the similar name (Matchless). A 1903 Alldays and Onions Motorcycle –

Alldays and Onions manufactured and sold cars and Motorcycles and were known for their hill climbing ability. They expanded to trucks and tractors also.

In 1908, they acquired the Motor car division of Enfield Cycle Companycalled Enfield Autocar Co. Alldays and Onions brand and the Enfield Brand were kept separately and cars were sold under their own brand names. A 1907 and a 1914 Enfield car –

By 1919 , Alldays and Onions and Enfield Autocar Company were merged to form Enfield-Allday and from then on cars were made under the Enfield-Allday brand. A 1919 Enfield-Allday car –

The Allday and Onions logo –

Enfield – Alldays closed operations in 1925 and the Enfield brand was repurchased by Enfield Cycle Company.

 

 

Thomas H White (1836 – 1914) was an inventor and pioneer of sewing machines which were sold under the New England Brand and later White brand. In 1858, Thomas White founded the White Manufacturing Company to manufacture and sell sewing machine and components. The company was renamed as White Sewing Machine Company in 1876. In 1894 , his son Rollin Henry White (1872 – 1962) joined the company and was interested in horseless carriages and automobiles.
In 1898 , he bought a Locomobile steam car and went about improving the reliability of its boiler. In 1898 he invented a flash boiler suitable for automobiles. The flash boiler had coiled water tubes and had the advantage of reducing the starting time of a steam car from the traditional 20+ min to less than 10 min. He had also used the compound steam engine with high pressure and low pressure cylinders. A condenser in the front recycled the exhausted steam back to the water tank as water, thus increasing the range.
Watch Jay Leno start and drive  a 1907, 30 hp White Steamer here.
In 1900, they made the first steam car with the flash boiler. Rollin white developed variants with his steam engine including trucks.  A 1900 White steam car and truck.
White entered in to racing and in 1905 , a White Racer named “Whistling Billy” set the land speed record of 74 mph. In 1906 the company was renamed as White Motor Car co.
White also had the reputation of being the first official Presidents Car in the USA. In 1909, President Taft made a White Model M his official state car. White is also credited with the first automobile to be used in wars for transport. The official state car – Model M –
By 1910,  realising the mass adoption of internal combustion engine, they moved to manufacture of Gasoline engine trucks. White trucks were famous for their quality and were in demand from all over the world including for military purposes.
White Motor Car Company consolidated its leadership in the truck segment by acquiring a lot of truck companies. In 1951 they acquired Sterling Motor Truck Company; in 1953 they acquired Autocar Company; in 1957 they acquired REO Car Company and in 1958 they acquiredDiamond T Motor Car company. In 1976 they merged Diamond T and REO to form the Diamond Reo Truck company.
White Motor Car company with all its subsidiaries were taken over byVolvo Trucks in 1981 and the brand slowly disappeared after that.
The logo of White –

 

 

John Brisben Walker (1847 – 1931), a magazine editor and Amzi Lorenzo Barber (1843 – 1909) , a road asphalting contractor formed the Locomobile Company to manufacture steam automobiles – the name Locomobile being derived out of Locomotive & Automobile.
In 1899, they bough the patent rights for a steam car from the Stanley brothers for $250,000, with only one car of that design made and 199 pending orders.  Shortly after formation of the company John Walker left Locomobile. From 1899 till about 1902, Locomobile made and sold about 4000 steam cars. A 1901 Locomobile steamer –
Locomobile steamers were the first automobiles to be used in a war , theBoer war between 1899 – 1902. They were used as generators and to carry search lights.
Locomobile steamers were highly unreliable and troublesome and in 1902, Locomobile company sold  the patents back to Stanley brothers for $20000 and shifted their concentration towards Internal Combustion engine automobiles.
Locomobile appointed Andrew L Riker to design and make a internal combustion  engine automobile and the first car was made in 1904. Locomobile company participated in racing and, in 1906, was the first American car to win the Vanderbilt cup. The 1906 Vanderbilt racer –
The most famous of Locomobile cars was the Model 48 –
Locomobile was taken over by Durant Motors in 1922 and continued to make cars under the Locomobile Brand name. Durant motors along with Locomobile closed operations in 1929. One of the last Locomobile cars , a 1928 Locomobile –
The Locomobile logo –

 

Twin brothers Francis Edgar Stanley (1849 – 1917) and Freelan Oscar Stanley (1849 – 1940) were pioneers of the dry photographic plate. In 1897 , after witnessing a french steam car in an expo, they got interested and started developing an automobile with a steam engine. In 1898 , they made their first steam car and drove up a steep hill in 2 hours which otherwise would have taken 6 hours in a horse carriage.
A 1898 steam car with Freelan Stanley and his wife –
They produced about 200 of these cars and later sold the rights of the steam car to Locomobile company and returned back to their photography business.
In 1902, they sold the photography business to George Eastman and returned back to Automobile business. They founded Stanley Motor Carriage Company to manufacture and sell steam powered cars. Stanley steam cars were known for their quality, reliability and boasts of one of the safest boiler designs with no recorded accident of boiler explosions. The boilers and burners were placed below the rear seat and directly coupled to the rear axle. As the torque produced is high, steam cars do not require clutch and transmissions.
A 1903 Stanley steam car –
Around 1905, steam car designs evolved and housed the boiler and burners in front leading to be known as “Coffin-nosed” cars. In 1906 , a Stanley steam car set the world speed record of 127 mph (201 km/h) and the record stood for 103 years , broken by another modern steam car in 2009. Stanley steamers came to be known as “flying teapots” in view of their exploits in the racing arena.
A 1908 and an 1912 Stanley steam car – Note the shape of the front – coffin-like
The driver controls were also complex and requires an engineer to start and drive a steam car. It has many pressure gauges (water, steam , main fuel, pilot fuel) , oil winker, throttle below steering wheel, air pressure tanks, steam control etc. Below is an example of a Stanley steamer dashboard.
The mechanical layout of a steam car is also completely different as well as complex, requiring multiple plumbing to handle oil, fuel, water, steam , heat etc. Below is a layout of a Stanley steamer –
The starting procedure is elaborate and requires a minimum of 20 min to start and drive away a steam car. Watch Jay Leno start and drive a 1906 Stanley steamer here.
The Stanley Motor Carriage logo –
In the early 1900 , steam cars were one of the highest selling automobiles, next to electric cars. However, with the invention of starter motor by Cadillac and mass production of Ford Model T cars, steam cars lost steam and were on the decline. Stanley steam cars tried to counter this by an advertisement campaign , which reads –
Power –
          Correctly generated
          Correctly controlled
          Correctly applied to rear axle
This campaign was put forth to counter the rise of  “internal explosion Engine” which was gaining popularity at that time. As we know the “internal explosion engine” won the race.
Stanley Motor carriage company changed hand in 1917 and was finally closed down in 1924.

The Locomotive Act of 1865 , also known as the RED flag act , required –

1. Self-propelled vehicles to have a speed limit of 4 mph(6 Km/h) in country roads and 2 mph (3 Km/h) in city roads
2. It should have a crew of 3 – a driver, a stoker and flag man
3. The flag man need to carry a Red flag and walk 60 yards (55 m) ahead of the vehicle.
This effectively restricted the speed of the vehicle to the walking speed of the man carrying the Red flag. He has to warn the horse carriages about the self-propelled vehicle ahead and ensure that the driver stops the vehicle till the horse or the horse carriage passes by.
The amended Highway & Locomotive act of 1878 reduced the distance of the Red flag man to 20 yards but all the other conditions remained same.
Below is a depiction of the implementation of the red flag act –
These restrictive rules and regulations choked the development of the British Motor Industry , helped by the Railway and Horse carriage lobbies.
Finally , on 14 November 1896 , the new Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 was passed with the following changes and was applicable to vehicles less than 3 tons in weight.
1. Speed limit was increased to 14 mph (22 Km/h)
2. Was exempted from the 3 member crew as well as the Red flag
To celebrate this event, Harry Lawson of Daimler (England) and his friends organised for the London to Brighton “Emancipation” run. The London – Brighton run starts off with the symbolic tearing of the RED flag.  The London – Brighton run is being regularly conducted from 1927 till date.
The 1896 emancipation run –
By 1903, the speed limits were increased to 20 mph and later on the laws were repealed.

 

George B Selden (1846 – 1922) was a patent lawyer and an inventor. In 1879 , he filed a patent for a horseless carriage – Road engine powered by liquid-hydrocarbon engine of the compression type. After many updates, the US patent office finally  awarded the patent to him in 1895 – Patent no 549.160. The liquid-hydrocarbon engine mentioned in the patent was of the Brayton cycle type.
Even though George Selden never built an automobile , he intended to use the patent effectively to collect royalties. In 1899, Selden sold the patent to Electric Vehicle Company (EVC) who wanted to control the Electric vehicle business by controlling the Gasoline powered automobiles through the Selden patent. Immediately they filed patent suit against Winton Automobiles who were one of the largest sellers of automobile.
By 1903, 30+ automobile manufacturers got to togather to support the Selden patent with a view to limit and shut out competition, called theAssociation of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers (ALAM). The Association would pool in royalties from the members and use it partially to find patent infringement cases. Winton joined the ALAM and the case against him was dropped.
The royalties started with 1.25 % and was finally fixed at 0.75%.
In 1903 , Ford Motor Co decided to contest the patent by refusing to pay royalties and a long drawn legal battle ensued. In 1909, Ford lost the case as the judge ruled in favour of Selden. Ford appealed and, in 1911 , the US courts ruled against the Selden patent , the main reason being that the current automobiles use Otto cycle engine and not Brayton cycle engine.
Thus, one of the longest patent battle for the Automobile ended in 1911.
George Selden did found an automobile company in 1905 and they produced cars between 1909 and 1911.  The Selden Motor vehicle company ceased production in 1911.

 

 

James Sumner (1860 – 1924) was a British Engineer involved in the manufacture of steam lawn movers and experimenting with self-propelled steam vehicles. In 1892 , he converted a tri-cycle to run on steam.

In 1895 , he designed and developed a 3 wheel steam car for Mr Theodore Carr.

In 1896 , he along with Henry Spurrier (1840 – 1922) and his sons Henry Spurrier II (1869 – 1942) and George Spurrier (1872 – 1946), formed the Lancashire Steam Motor Company in the town of Leyland. In 1897 , they introduced the first steam wagon.

1899/1900 saw the introduction  of stem passenger vehicles which started the bus business. Below is the 1900 steam bus sold to Dundee Motor Omnibus. In fact the first export was a steam mail van to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

While the company was manufacturing bigger and better steam trucks and buses, they were experimenting with Petrol-engine power also. In 1904, they introduced the first Petrol-engine Lorry , named as “The Pig”.

In 1907 , Lancashire Steam Motor company was renamed as Leyland Motors , taking the name of the town where it was located.

Leyland continued its domination of the Lorry and Bus market , shifting out of steam to petrol. In 1920, they introduced their car – Leyland Eight.

Leyland Eight was sophisticated and expensive and did not sell well. It was stopped in 1923.

Leyland continued its domination in the Lorry and Bus segment. Leyland was the first to design buses to maximize passenger space which led to the driver sitting on one side of the engine as well as Double-Decker buses. Below is a 1906 Leyland bus and a Double-Decker bus.

Leyland also had the concept of “Leyland Zoo” where the trucks were named after animals , including Octopus for their multi-axle trucks.

After the acquisition of Standard Triumph in 1963, the company was renamed as Leyland Motor Corporation. In 1968 Leyland Motor Corporation merged with British Motor Holdings (BMH) to form the British Leyland Corporation (BLMC). This merger brought in a bouquet of cars (Morris, Austin, Wolseley, Siddley, Standard, Triumph, Rover) under the BLMC umbrella.

In 1975, after financial problems, BLMC was nationalised and renamed as British Leyland (BL). In 1986 , they acquired the Rover group. In 1987 , the DAF group of  Netherlands acquired BL and the company was renamed as Leyland DAF.

1993 saw the bankruptcy of DAF group which led to the management take over as well as splitting in to Leyland trucks LDV Limited (for Vans) Leyland Bus and spare parts division LEX.

In 1998 , Leyland truck was sold to PACCAR group of USA and prior to DAF bankruptcy, Leyland Bus was sold to Volvo in 1988.

The Leyland Logo –

In India , Leyland still lives on in the form of Ashok-Leyland.

 

 

Charles Brady King (1868 – 1957) of USA was an inventor and Engineer.  In 1894 he formed the Charles B King Company to manufacture Stationary Engines, Marine Engines and Pneumatic hammers and was holding numerous patents.
In 1893 , he made a plan to develop a “horseless” carriage which will be self-propelled by a Gasoline engine.
The first car was made in 1895 with a 2-cylinder King engine. The second car was made in 1896 and was driven around.
After experimenting successfully with cars, King continued to concentrate on Engines and pneumatic hammers. In 1900, King sold the Marine Engine business to Old Motor Works and joined the company as Chief Engineer. After the disastrous fire at Old Motor Works , he left the company and joined Northern Manufacturing Co (Later to be renamed as Northern Motor Company) in 1902.
At Norther Motor Company , King developed many engines and introduced new features on Northern cars. One of the well know being the “Silent Northern” car.
When Northern Motor Company was taken over by E-M-F in 1908 , King left Norther Motor Company and pursued higher studies. On completion of his studies , in 1910, King incorporated his company – King Motor Car Company.
King Motor Car company produced a few cars , the famous being the King 8 with a 8-cylinder engine, advertised as “the car of no regrets“. A 1912 King 36 roadster –
The King Logo –

After 1916 , sales kept falling and finally King Motor Company was closed down in 1924

 

Louis Semple Clarke (1866 – 1957) of USA was in the business of steam boat services. Early in 1890s  he started experimenting with motorization. In 1897, he formed the company Pittsburgh Motor vehicle Company. The first attempt was a Gasoline powered tricycle in 1897 and later, in 1899,  a proper 4 wheeled car called “Pittsburgher” was introduced.

In 1899 , the company was renamed as The Autocar Company and was experimenting with cars and trucks.
A 1901 Autocar car –
Autocar was known for innovation and inventions. LS (Louis Semple), as he was known, invented the Porcelain insulation for spark plugs. The patent was later sold to Champion and is still the main element of a modern spark plug. LS also was the first to put the steering on the left hand side which led to standardization of RH traffic. He was also the first to use oil circulation system for lubrication of engines.
By 1907 , Auto car decided to concentrate on manufacture of trucks. Some of the early Autocar trucks – a 1910 Autocar truck and a 1932 Autocar Tanker.

By 1912 , Autocar stopped manufacture of cars and  concentrated on the manufacture of trucks.
The Autocar Logo –
Autocar was taken over by White Motor Company in 1953 and trucks were manufactured under both White and Autocar brands. In 1981 , Volvo acquired White Motor Company and Volvo also continued to manufacture trucks under Autocar brand. In 2001 , Volvo stopped manufacture of Autocar trucks sold the Autocar brand to General Vehicle Holdings.