Tag Archive: volvo


 

Thomas H White (1836 – 1914) was an inventor and pioneer of sewing machines which were sold under the New England Brand and later White brand. In 1858, Thomas White founded the White Manufacturing Company to manufacture and sell sewing machine and components. The company was renamed as White Sewing Machine Company in 1876. In 1894 , his son Rollin Henry White (1872 – 1962) joined the company and was interested in horseless carriages and automobiles.
In 1898 , he bought a Locomobile steam car and went about improving the reliability of its boiler. In 1898 he invented a flash boiler suitable for automobiles. The flash boiler had coiled water tubes and had the advantage of reducing the starting time of a steam car from the traditional 20+ min to less than 10 min. He had also used the compound steam engine with high pressure and low pressure cylinders. A condenser in the front recycled the exhausted steam back to the water tank as water, thus increasing the range.
Watch Jay Leno start and drive  a 1907, 30 hp White Steamer here.
In 1900, they made the first steam car with the flash boiler. Rollin white developed variants with his steam engine including trucks.  A 1900 White steam car and truck.
White entered in to racing and in 1905 , a White Racer named “Whistling Billy” set the land speed record of 74 mph. In 1906 the company was renamed as White Motor Car co.
White also had the reputation of being the first official Presidents Car in the USA. In 1909, President Taft made a White Model M his official state car. White is also credited with the first automobile to be used in wars for transport. The official state car – Model M –
By 1910,  realising the mass adoption of internal combustion engine, they moved to manufacture of Gasoline engine trucks. White trucks were famous for their quality and were in demand from all over the world including for military purposes.
White Motor Car Company consolidated its leadership in the truck segment by acquiring a lot of truck companies. In 1951 they acquired Sterling Motor Truck Company; in 1953 they acquired Autocar Company; in 1957 they acquired REO Car Company and in 1958 they acquiredDiamond T Motor Car company. In 1976 they merged Diamond T and REO to form the Diamond Reo Truck company.
White Motor Car company with all its subsidiaries were taken over byVolvo Trucks in 1981 and the brand slowly disappeared after that.
The logo of White –

 

 

James Sumner (1860 – 1924) was a British Engineer involved in the manufacture of steam lawn movers and experimenting with self-propelled steam vehicles. In 1892 , he converted a tri-cycle to run on steam.

In 1895 , he designed and developed a 3 wheel steam car for Mr Theodore Carr.

In 1896 , he along with Henry Spurrier (1840 – 1922) and his sons Henry Spurrier II (1869 – 1942) and George Spurrier (1872 – 1946), formed the Lancashire Steam Motor Company in the town of Leyland. In 1897 , they introduced the first steam wagon.

1899/1900 saw the introduction  of stem passenger vehicles which started the bus business. Below is the 1900 steam bus sold to Dundee Motor Omnibus. In fact the first export was a steam mail van to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

While the company was manufacturing bigger and better steam trucks and buses, they were experimenting with Petrol-engine power also. In 1904, they introduced the first Petrol-engine Lorry , named as “The Pig”.

In 1907 , Lancashire Steam Motor company was renamed as Leyland Motors , taking the name of the town where it was located.

Leyland continued its domination of the Lorry and Bus market , shifting out of steam to petrol. In 1920, they introduced their car – Leyland Eight.

Leyland Eight was sophisticated and expensive and did not sell well. It was stopped in 1923.

Leyland continued its domination in the Lorry and Bus segment. Leyland was the first to design buses to maximize passenger space which led to the driver sitting on one side of the engine as well as Double-Decker buses. Below is a 1906 Leyland bus and a Double-Decker bus.

Leyland also had the concept of “Leyland Zoo” where the trucks were named after animals , including Octopus for their multi-axle trucks.

After the acquisition of Standard Triumph in 1963, the company was renamed as Leyland Motor Corporation. In 1968 Leyland Motor Corporation merged with British Motor Holdings (BMH) to form the British Leyland Corporation (BLMC). This merger brought in a bouquet of cars (Morris, Austin, Wolseley, Siddley, Standard, Triumph, Rover) under the BLMC umbrella.

In 1975, after financial problems, BLMC was nationalised and renamed as British Leyland (BL). In 1986 , they acquired the Rover group. In 1987 , the DAF group of  Netherlands acquired BL and the company was renamed as Leyland DAF.

1993 saw the bankruptcy of DAF group which led to the management take over as well as splitting in to Leyland trucks LDV Limited (for Vans) Leyland Bus and spare parts division LEX.

In 1998 , Leyland truck was sold to PACCAR group of USA and prior to DAF bankruptcy, Leyland Bus was sold to Volvo in 1988.

The Leyland Logo –

In India , Leyland still lives on in the form of Ashok-Leyland.

 

 

Louis Semple Clarke (1866 – 1957) of USA was in the business of steam boat services. Early in 1890s  he started experimenting with motorization. In 1897, he formed the company Pittsburgh Motor vehicle Company. The first attempt was a Gasoline powered tricycle in 1897 and later, in 1899,  a proper 4 wheeled car called “Pittsburgher” was introduced.

In 1899 , the company was renamed as The Autocar Company and was experimenting with cars and trucks.
A 1901 Autocar car –
Autocar was known for innovation and inventions. LS (Louis Semple), as he was known, invented the Porcelain insulation for spark plugs. The patent was later sold to Champion and is still the main element of a modern spark plug. LS also was the first to put the steering on the left hand side which led to standardization of RH traffic. He was also the first to use oil circulation system for lubrication of engines.
By 1907 , Auto car decided to concentrate on manufacture of trucks. Some of the early Autocar trucks – a 1910 Autocar truck and a 1932 Autocar Tanker.

By 1912 , Autocar stopped manufacture of cars and  concentrated on the manufacture of trucks.
The Autocar Logo –
Autocar was taken over by White Motor Company in 1953 and trucks were manufactured under both White and Autocar brands. In 1981 , Volvo acquired White Motor Company and Volvo also continued to manufacture trucks under Autocar brand. In 2001 , Volvo stopped manufacture of Autocar trucks sold the Autocar brand to General Vehicle Holdings.

 

Marius Berliet (1866 – 1949), of France started experimenting with engines and cars in 1894/95 and produced a single cylinder engine car.This car sold only a few numbers till 1900. By 1900, Berliet designed and manufactured reliable cars.

 

 

In 1902, Berliet bought the factories of Audibert & Lavirotte and started manufacturing 4 cylinder and 6 cylinder cars. In 1906, financial troubles led Berliet to sell design licenses to American Locomotive Co (ALCO) to manufacture Berliet design cars.

 

Marius Berliet was interested in manufacturing large trucks and by 1917 was a supplier of trucks  for the French army. Cars continued to be manufactured till 1936 and one of the famous car was the Berliet Dauphine with independent front suspension.

 

 

After cessation of car manufacture, Berliet continued to build large trucks. One large truck was the 1957 , Berliet T100 –

 

 

Berliet Logo –

 

 

While Berliet had no connection with manufacture of Locomotives, the logo depicts a locomotive. It is believed that this was related to the financial bailout by ALCO in 1906 which led to the adoption of this logo by Marius Berliet.

 

Berliet was taken over by Citroen in 1967 and when Citroen was taken over by Peugeot , the Berliet brand was sold to Renault. Renault integrated Berliet in to Saviem and then RVI which became Renault trucks. Renault trucks currently with Volvo group.

 

A Berliet Truck seen in the 2010 Paris Motor Show –